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SAT写作常见的修辞及论证方法

2019-01-25 13:35来源:浏览:

SAT频道为大家带来SAT写作常见的修辞及论证方法一文,希望对大家SAT备考有所帮助。更多精彩尽请关注SAT频道! 1...

  思润频道为大家带来常见的修辞及论证方法一文,希望对大家SAT备考有所帮助。更多精彩尽请关注思润SAT频道!

  1. Simile 明喻

  明喻是将具有共性的不同事物作对比.这种共性存在于人们的心里,而不是事物的自然属性。或者说是以两种具有相同特征的事物和现象进行对比,表明本体和喻体之间的相似关系,两者都在对比中出现。

  标志词常用 like, as, seem, as if, as though, similar to, such as等.

  例如:

  (1) He looked as if he had just stepped outof my book of fairytalesand had passed me like a spirit.

  他看上去好像刚从我的童话故事书中走出来,像幽灵一样从我身旁走过去。

  (2) It has long leaves that sway in thewind like slim fingersreaching to touch something.

  它那长长的叶子在风中摆动,好像伸出纤细的手指去触摸什么东西似的。

  2. Metaphor 隐喻,暗喻

  隐喻是将某一事物的名称用于另一事物,通过比较形成。这种比喻不通过比喻词进行,而是直接将用事物当作乙事物来描写,甲乙两事物之间的联系和相似之处是暗含的。

  例如:

  (1) German guns and German planes raineddown bombs, shells andbullets.

  德国人的枪炮和飞机将炸弹、炮弹和子弹像暴雨一样倾泻下来。

  (2) The diamond department was the heartand center of the store.

  钻石部是商店的心脏和核心。

  3. Metonymy 借喻,转喻

  借喻不直接说出所要说的事物,而使用另一个与之相关的事物名称。指两种不同事物并不相似,但又密不可分,因而常用其中一种事物名称代替另一种。就是借用甲来表示乙,但前提条件是甲必须与乙关系密切和本质上有相似之处。

  (1) 以容器代替内容

  例如:

  The kettle boils.

  水开了。

  The room sat silent.

  全屋人安静地坐着。

  (2) 以资料.工具代替事物的名称

  例如:

  Lend me your ears, please.

  请听我说。

  (3) 以作者代替作品

  例如:

  a complete Shakespeare

  莎士比亚全集

  (4) 以具体事物代替抽象概念

  例如:

  I had the muscle, and they made money outof it.

  我有力气,他们就用我的力气赚钱。

  4. Synecdoche 提喻

  提喻用部分代替全体,或用全体代替部分,或特殊代替一般一般代替特殊。又称举隅法,举隅指举一反三之意,具有“牵一发而动全身”之功能。主要特点是局部代表全体,或以全体喻指部分,或以抽象代具体,或以具体代抽象。它往往因微见著,在提到某人或某物时,不直呼其名,与其密不可分的东西来代替。

  例如:

  (1) There are about 100 hands working inhis factory.

  他的厂里约有100名工人。

  (2) He is the Newton of this century.

  他是本世纪的牛顿。

  (3) The fox goes very well with your cap.

  这狐皮围脖与你的帽子很相配。

  5. Synaesthesia 通感,联觉,移觉

  这种修辞法是以视.听.触.嗅.味等感觉直接描写事物,是指在某个感官所产生的感觉,转到另一个感官的心理感受。

  例如:

  (1) The birds sat upon a tree and pouredforth their lily likevoice.

  鸟儿落在树上,倾泻出百合花似的声音。

  (2) Taste the music of Mozart.

  品尝Mozart的音乐。

  6. Personification 拟人

  拟人是把生命赋予无生命的事物,是把人类的特点、特性加于外界事物之上,使之人格化,以物拟人,以达到彼此交融,合二为一。

  例如:

  (1) She may have tens of thousand of babiesin one summer.(From“Watching Ants”)

  一个夏天她可能生育成千上万个孩子。

  这里用“she”和“babies”把蜜蜂比作人类妇女的生育。

  (2) My only worry was that January wouldfind me hunting for a jobagain.

  我唯一担心的是,到了一月份我又得去找工作。

  英语里常把“年”“月”“日”人格化,赋以生命,使人们读起来亲切生动。

  7. Hyperbole 夸张

  夸张是以言过其实的说法表达强调的目的.它可以加强语势,增加表达效果.. 运用丰富的想象,过激的言词,渲染和装饰客观事物,以达到强调的效果。

  例如:

  (1) My blood froze. 我的血液都凝固了。

  When I told our father about this, hisheart burst.

  当我将这件事告诉我们的父亲时,他的心几乎要迸出来。

  (2) My heart almost stopped beating when Iheard my daughter’s voiceon the phone.

  从电话里一听到我女儿的声音,我的心几乎停止跳动。

  8. Parallelism 排比, 平行

  这种修辞法是把两个或两个以上的结构大体相同或相似,意思相关,语气一致的短语.句子排列成串,形成一个整体。

  例如:

  (1) No one can be perfectly free till allare free; no one can beperfectly moral till all are moral; no one can beperfectly happy till all arehappy.

  (2) In the days when all these things areto beanswered for, Isummon you and yours, to the last of your bad race, toanswer for them. In thedays when all these things are to be answered for, Isummon your brother, theworst of your bad race, to answer for them separately.

  9. Euphemism 委婉,婉辞法

  用温和的、间接的词语代替生硬的、粗俗的词语,以避免直接说出不愉快的事实冒犯别人或者造成令人窘迫的、沮丧的局面。婉辞法指用委婉,文雅的方法表达粗恶,避讳的话。

  例如:

  (1) He is out visiting the necessary.

  他出去方便一下。

  (2) His relation with his wife has not beenfortunate.

  他与妻子关系不融洽。

  10. Irony 反语

  反语指用相反意义的词来表达意思的作文方式.如在指责过失.错误时,用赞同过失的说法,而在表扬时,则近乎责难的说法. 是指用含蓄的褒义词语来表示其反面的意义,从而达到使本义更加幽默,更加讽刺的效果。

  例如:

  (1) "Of course, you only carry largenotes, no small change onyou." the waiter said to the beggar.

  啊,当然,我知道像你这样的先生只带大票子。店员这句话意在讽刺这位穿破衣的顾客:像你这样的人怎么会有大票子呢?名为“gentlemen”实则“beggar”而已。

  注:

  sarcasm的特点是尖刻,往往蓄意中伤或讥讽;

  irony的特点是幽默或俏皮,故意使用同本意相反的说法,必须靠其语调或笔调表示真意;

  satire可用来泛指irony,sarcasm等,其特点是用来讽刺社会向现象或一些人,不像sarcasm那样指个人。

  11.Pun 双关

  双关就是用一个词在句子中的双重含义,借题发挥。作出多种解释,旁敲侧击,从而达到意想不到的。滑稽效果.它主要以相似的词形、词意和谐音的方式出现,是以一个词或词组,用巧妙的办法同时把互不关联的两种含义结合起来,以取得一种诙谐有趣的效果。

  例如:

  Napoleon was astonished. "Either youare mad, or I am," hedeclared.

  "Both,sir!" cried theSwede proudly.

  “Both”一词一语双关,既指拿破仑和这位士兵都是疯子,又指这位战士参加过拿破仑指挥的两次战役。

  12. Parody 仿拟

  这是一种模仿名言、警句、谚语,改动其中部分词语,从而使其产生新意的修辞。

  例如:

  (1) Rome was not built in a day, nor in ayear.

  (2) To smoke or not to smoke, that is aquestion.

  13. Rhetorical question 修辞疑问

  它与疑问句的不同在于它并不以得到答复为目的,而是以疑问为手段,取得修辞上的效果,其特点是:肯定问句表示强烈否定,而否定问句表示强烈的肯定,它的答案往往是不言而喻的。

  例如:

  (1) How was it possible to walk for an hourthrough the woods andsee nothing worth of note?

  (2) Shall we allow those untruths to gounanswered?

  14. Antithesis 对照,对比,对偶

  这种修辞指将意义完全相反的语句排在一起对比的一种修辞方法。(将强烈对立的想法并列于稳定、对等的短语或语法结构中的修辞方法。)

  例如:

  (1) Pride hurts, modesty benefits.

  满招损,谦受益。

  (2) All for one, one for all.

  人人为我,我为人人。

  15. Paradox 隽语

  这是一种貌似矛盾,但包含一定哲理的意味深长的说法,是一种矛盾修辞法。

  例如:

  (1) The child is the father to the man.

  三岁看老。

  (2) No news is good news.

  没有消息就是好消息。(尤其在战争年代)

  16. Oxymoron 反意法,逆喻,矛盾修饰法

  这也是一种矛盾修辞法,用两种不相调和的特征形容一个事物,以不协调的搭配使读者领悟句中微妙的含义。

  例如:

  (1) The state of this house is cheerlesswelcome.

  (2) The mother is undergoing the joyfulpain, and the painful joy ofchild birth.

  17. Rhetorical repetition 叠言

  这种修辞法是指在特定的语境中,将相同的结构,相同意义词组成句子重叠使用,以增强语气和力量。

  例如:

  (1) It must be created by the blood and thework of all of us whobelieve in the future, who believe in man and his gloriousman—made destiny.

  它必须用我们这些对于未来,对于人类以及人类自己创造的伟大命运具有信心的人的鲜血和汗水去创造。

  (2) Because good technique in medicine andsurgery means morequickly—cured patients, less pain, less discomfort, lessdeath, less diseaseand less deformity.

  因为优良的医疗技术和外科手术意味着更快地治疗病人,更少痛苦,更少不安,更少死亡,更少疾病,和更少残废。

  18. Onomatopoeia 拟声

  是摹仿自然界中非语言的声音,其发音和所描写的事物的声音很相似,使语言显得生动,富有表现力。

  例如:

  (1) On the root of the school house somepigeons were softly cooing.

  在学校房屋的屋顶上一些鸽子正轻轻地咕咕叫着。

  (2) She brought me into touch witheverything that could be reachedor felt—sunlight, the rustling of silk, the noisesof insects, the creaking ofa door, the voice of a loved one

  她使我接触到所有够得着的或者感觉得到的东西,如阳光呀,丝绸摆动时的沙沙声呀,昆虫的叫声呀,开门的吱嗄声呀亲人的说话声呀。

  19. Alliteration 头韵法

  在文句中有两个以上连结在一起的词或词组,其开头的音节有同样的字母或音,以增强语言的节奏感。

  例如:

  How and why he had come to Princeton, NewJersey is a story ofstruggle, success, and sadness.

  20. Analogy 类比

  将两个本质上不同的事物就其共同点进行比较,是通过比喻手法的综合运用帮助说明道理或描述某种复杂情况。

  比如说,我们在讨论政府职能的时候,假如我们不了解政府职能,我们可以从我们了解的组织谈起,比如我们可以讨论班级、学校、公司或者一些大型小型组织,从一个具体的问题到另一个问题而避免谈一些不熟悉的问题。

  具体的陈述可以类似如下开展:

  Writing a book of poetry is like dropping arose petal down theGrand Canyon and waiting for the echo.

  将写书的动作和把玫瑰花瓣扔到大峡谷等回音类比。

  21. Symbolism 象征

  象征是通过一些具体形象,使人产生联想,从而表现与之相联系的某种抽象的概念、思想、感情,表现作品主题的艺术创作手法,属于文艺学范畴,它是一种写作手法。而借代,是一种修辞手法,是指用相关的事物来代替所要表达的事物,本体与借体之间没有相似点,只有相关性,因而不能加“像”字换成明喻。

  Harper Lee写的小说"To Kill aMockingbird"中就运用了symbolism,把Mockingbird(知更鸟)比喻成那些只会为别人做好事,但却恰恰因此受到惩罚的人们。因为知更鸟只会为人类不停的歌唱,从不做任何坏事,而自己却死在人们的枪口下。

  二、3种科学的说服方式、征服阅卷老师

  1. Ethos(appeal to ethics)即“信誉证明”。

  读者在阅读一篇文章的时候,往往会问自己:“作者是如何知道这些事的?”“我又为什么要相信这个写文章的人?”所以,想要成为一个有力的说服者,必须在作品中提供能够证明其真实性和可靠性的证据,让读者感觉到你是“可以被信赖的”。一次亲身的经历或者一个权威的身份都可以帮助作者“验明真身”。

  例:SAT OG Practice Essay 1

  More than a decade ago, [my wife] Rosalynn and I had the fortunate opportunity to camp and hike in these regions of the Arctic Refuge. During bright July days, we walked along ancient caribou trails and studied the brilliant mosaic of wildflowers, mosses, and lichens that hugged the tundra. There was a timeless quality about this great land. As the never-setting sun circled above the horizon, we watched muskox, those shaggy survivors of the Ice Age, lumber along braided rivers that meander toward the Beaufort Sea.

  这个段落节选自美国前总统Jimmy Carter为“Arctic National Wildlife Refuge”所著的前言文章。如何让读者更好地看到Arctic Refuge的美呢?作者讲述了一段故事,他用自己和妻子的亲身经历向读者描绘了一幅恢弘壮阔的野生风光,让读者更加坚信了这份永恒的美。

  2. Pathos(appeal to emotion)即“情感证明”。

  冷冰冰的数据和高高在上的权威或许不足以俘虏读者的心,真正让人们心房一颤的还得靠情感上的共鸣。目的就是把对方的感情带入进来,无论是爱慕还是憎恶,欢愉或是哀痛。这就好比一篇荡气回肠的战争史诗,往往能让我们愤慨于碌碌无为的政府,牵挂于水深火热的百姓,惶恐于弹片横飞的战场,欢畅于企盼已久的曙光。

  例:SAT OG Practice Essay 2

  Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to me that the war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the poor at home. It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and to die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population. We were taking the black young men who had been crippled by our society and sending them eight thousand miles away to guarantee liberties in Southeast Asia which they had not found in southwest Georgia and East Harlem. And so we have been repeatedly faced with the cruel irony of watching Negro and white boys on TV screens as they kill and die together for a nation that has been unable to seat them together in the same schools. And so we watch them in brutal solidarity burning the huts of a poor village, but we realize that they would hardly live on the same block in Chicago. I could not be silent in the face of such cruel manipulation of the poor.

  这个段落节选自美国黑人民权运动领袖Martin Luther King Jr. 的演讲“Beyond Vietnam – A Time to Break Silence”。为了唤起人们对政法参与越南战争的不满,马丁路德金在本段中特意以活生生的家庭成员为切入点,以种族不平等的敏感话题为讽刺,同时加以大量对战争残酷和悲痛性的描述。这些都足以激起读者强烈的认同感。

  3. Logos(appeal to logic)即“逻辑证明”。

  顾名思义,这种说服方式着重的是逻辑推理,长期接触出国考试的考生对这种方式可谓是再熟悉不过了:阅读文章看逻辑,篇章写作看逻辑,甚至词汇填空和听力理解都要借助逻辑思维。何谓有“逻辑”呢?简单来说,就是有因必有果,有理需有据,由此能及彼,由表可及里。

  例:SAT OG Practice Essay 3

  Early tech use has cognitive benefits as well. Although parenting experts have questioned the value of educational games—as Jim Taylor, author of Raising Generation Tech, puts it, “they’re a load of crap . . . meant to make money”—newstudies have shown they can add real value. In a recent study by SRI, a nonprofit research firm, kids who played games like Samorost (solving puzzles) did 12% better on logic tests than those who did not. And at MIT’s Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued students’ interest in history and was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports.

  这个段落节选自Eliana Dockterman的文章“The Digital Parent Trap”。作者试图告诉读者尽早接触科技对孩子们是件好事。所谓“有理必有据”,在表明态度之后,Eliana立即用SRI和MIT的调差研究来加以论证,从两组对比

  1. Simile 明喻

  明喻是将具有共性的不同事物作对比.这种共性存在于人们的心里,而不是事物的自然属性。或者说是以两种具有相同特征的事物和现象进行对比,表明本体和喻体之间的相似关系,两者都在对比中出现。

  标志词常用 like, as, seem, as if, as though, similar to, such as等.

  例如:

  (1) He looked as if he had just stepped outof my book of fairytalesand had passed me like a spirit.

  他看上去好像刚从我的童话故事书中走出来,像幽灵一样从我身旁走过去。

  (2) It has long leaves that sway in thewind like slim fingersreaching to touch something.

  它那长长的叶子在风中摆动,好像伸出纤细的手指去触摸什么东西似的。

  2. Metaphor 隐喻,暗喻

  隐喻是将某一事物的名称用于另一事物,通过比较形成。这种比喻不通过比喻词进行,而是直接将用事物当作乙事物来描写,甲乙两事物之间的联系和相似之处是暗含的。

  例如:

  (1) German guns and German planes raineddown bombs, shells andbullets.

  德国人的枪炮和飞机将炸弹、炮弹和子弹像暴雨一样倾泻下来。

  (2) The diamond department was the heartand center of the store.

  钻石部是商店的心脏和核心。

  3. Metonymy 借喻,转喻

  借喻不直接说出所要说的事物,而使用另一个与之相关的事物名称。指两种不同事物并不相似,但又密不可分,因而常用其中一种事物名称代替另一种。就是借用甲来表示乙,但前提条件是甲必须与乙关系密切和本质上有相似之处。

  (1) 以容器代替内容

  例如:

  The kettle boils.

  水开了。

  The room sat silent.

  全屋人安静地坐着。

  (2) 以资料.工具代替事物的名称

  例如:

  Lend me your ears, please.

  请听我说。

  (3) 以作者代替作品

  例如:

  a complete Shakespeare

  莎士比亚全集

  (4) 以具体事物代替抽象概念

  例如:

  I had the muscle, and they made money outof it.

  我有力气,他们就用我的力气赚钱。

  4. Synecdoche 提喻

  提喻用部分代替全体,或用全体代替部分,或特殊代替一般一般代替特殊。又称举隅法,举隅指举一反三之意,具有“牵一发而动全身”之功能。主要特点是局部代表全体,或以全体喻指部分,或以抽象代具体,或以具体代抽象。它往往因微见著,在提到某人或某物时,不直呼其名,与其密不可分的东西来代替。

  例如:

  (1) There are about 100 hands working inhis factory.

  他的厂里约有100名工人。

  (2) He is the Newton of this century.

  他是本世纪的牛顿。

  (3) The fox goes very well with your cap.

  这狐皮围脖与你的帽子很相配。

  5. Synaesthesia 通感,联觉,移觉

  这种修辞法是以视.听.触.嗅.味等感觉直接描写事物,是指在某个感官所产生的感觉,转到另一个感官的心理感受。

  例如:

  (1) The birds sat upon a tree and pouredforth their lily likevoice.

  鸟儿落在树上,倾泻出百合花似的声音。

  (2) Taste the music of Mozart.

  品尝Mozart的音乐。

  6. Personification 拟人

  拟人是把生命赋予无生命的事物,是把人类的特点、特性加于外界事物之上,使之人格化,以物拟人,以达到彼此交融,合二为一。

  例如:

  (1) She may have tens of thousand of babiesin one summer.(From“Watching Ants”)

  一个夏天她可能生育成千上万个孩子。

  这里用“she”和“babies”把蜜蜂比作人类妇女的生育。

  (2) My only worry was that January wouldfind me hunting for a jobagain.

  我唯一担心的是,到了一月份我又得去找工作。

  英语里常把“年”“月”“日”人格化,赋以生命,使人们读起来亲切生动。

  7. Hyperbole 夸张

  夸张是以言过其实的说法表达强调的目的.它可以加强语势,增加表达效果.. 运用丰富的想象,过激的言词,渲染和装饰客观事物,以达到强调的效果。

  例如:

  (1) My blood froze. 我的血液都凝固了。

  When I told our father about this, hisheart burst.

  当我将这件事告诉我们的父亲时,他的心几乎要迸出来。

  (2) My heart almost stopped beating when Iheard my daughter’s voiceon the phone.

  从电话里一听到我女儿的声音,我的心几乎停止跳动。

  8. Parallelism 排比, 平行

  这种修辞法是把两个或两个以上的结构大体相同或相似,意思相关,语气一致的短语.句子排列成串,形成一个整体。

  例如:

  (1) No one can be perfectly free till allare free; no one can beperfectly moral till all are moral; no one can beperfectly happy till all arehappy.

  (2) In the days when all these things areto beanswered for, Isummon you and yours, to the last of your bad race, toanswer for them. In thedays when all these things are to be answered for, Isummon your brother, theworst of your bad race, to answer for them separately.

  9. Euphemism 委婉,婉辞法

  用温和的、间接的词语代替生硬的、粗俗的词语,以避免直接说出不愉快的事实冒犯别人或者造成令人窘迫的、沮丧的局面。婉辞法指用委婉,文雅的方法表达粗恶,避讳的话。

  例如:

  (1) He is out visiting the necessary.

  他出去方便一下。

  (2) His relation with his wife has not beenfortunate.

  他与妻子关系不融洽。

  10. Irony 反语

  反语指用相反意义的词来表达意思的作文方式.如在指责过失.错误时,用赞同过失的说法,而在表扬时,则近乎责难的说法. 是指用含蓄的褒义词语来表示其反面的意义,从而达到使本义更加幽默,更加讽刺的效果。

  例如:

  (1) "Of course, you only carry largenotes, no small change onyou." the waiter said to the beggar.

  啊,当然,我知道像你这样的先生只带大票子。店员这句话意在讽刺这位穿破衣的顾客:像你这样的人怎么会有大票子呢?名为“gentlemen”实则“beggar”而已。

  注:

  sarcasm的特点是尖刻,往往蓄意中伤或讥讽;

  irony的特点是幽默或俏皮,故意使用同本意相反的说法,必须靠其语调或笔调表示真意;

  satire可用来泛指irony,sarcasm等,其特点是用来讽刺社会向现象或一些人,不像sarcasm那样指个人。

  11.Pun 双关

  双关就是用一个词在句子中的双重含义,借题发挥。作出多种解释,旁敲侧击,从而达到意想不到的。滑稽效果.它主要以相似的词形、词意和谐音的方式出现,是以一个词或词组,用巧妙的办法同时把互不关联的两种含义结合起来,以取得一种诙谐有趣的效果。

  例如:

  Napoleon was astonished. "Either youare mad, or I am," hedeclared.

  "Both,sir!" cried theSwede proudly.

  “Both”一词一语双关,既指拿破仑和这位士兵都是疯子,又指这位战士参加过拿破仑指挥的两次战役。

  12. Parody 仿拟

  这是一种模仿名言、警句、谚语,改动其中部分词语,从而使其产生新意的修辞。

  例如:

  (1) Rome was not built in a day, nor in ayear.

  (2) To smoke or not to smoke, that is aquestion.

  13. Rhetorical question 修辞疑问

  它与疑问句的不同在于它并不以得到答复为目的,而是以疑问为手段,取得修辞上的效果,其特点是:肯定问句表示强烈否定,而否定问句表示强烈的肯定,它的答案往往是不言而喻的。

  例如:

  (1) How was it possible to walk for an hourthrough the woods andsee nothing worth of note?

  (2) Shall we allow those untruths to gounanswered?

  14. Antithesis 对照,对比,对偶

  这种修辞指将意义完全相反的语句排在一起对比的一种修辞方法。(将强烈对立的想法并列于稳定、对等的短语或语法结构中的修辞方法。)

  例如:

  (1) Pride hurts, modesty benefits.

  满招损,谦受益。

  (2) All for one, one for all.

  人人为我,我为人人。

  15. Paradox 隽语

  这是一种貌似矛盾,但包含一定哲理的意味深长的说法,是一种矛盾修辞法。

  例如:

  (1) The child is the father to the man.

  三岁看老。

  (2) No news is good news.

  没有消息就是好消息。(尤其在战争年代)

  16. Oxymoron 反意法,逆喻,矛盾修饰法

  这也是一种矛盾修辞法,用两种不相调和的特征形容一个事物,以不协调的搭配使读者领悟句中微妙的含义。

  例如:

  (1) The state of this house is cheerlesswelcome.

  (2) The mother is undergoing the joyfulpain, and the painful joy ofchild birth.

  17. Rhetorical repetition 叠言

  这种修辞法是指在特定的语境中,将相同的结构,相同意义词组成句子重叠使用,以增强语气和力量。

  例如:

  (1) It must be created by the blood and thework of all of us whobelieve in the future, who believe in man and his gloriousman—made destiny.

  它必须用我们这些对于未来,对于人类以及人类自己创造的伟大命运具有信心的人的鲜血和汗水去创造。

  (2) Because good technique in medicine andsurgery means morequickly—cured patients, less pain, less discomfort, lessdeath, less diseaseand less deformity.

  因为优良的医疗技术和外科手术意味着更快地治疗病人,更少痛苦,更少不安,更少死亡,更少疾病,和更少残废。

  18. Onomatopoeia 拟声

  是摹仿自然界中非语言的声音,其发音和所描写的事物的声音很相似,使语言显得生动,富有表现力。

  例如:

  (1) On the root of the school house somepigeons were softly cooing.

  在学校房屋的屋顶上一些鸽子正轻轻地咕咕叫着。

  (2) She brought me into touch witheverything that could be reachedor felt—sunlight, the rustling of silk, the noisesof insects, the creaking ofa door, the voice of a loved one

  她使我接触到所有够得着的或者感觉得到的东西,如阳光呀,丝绸摆动时的沙沙声呀,昆虫的叫声呀,开门的吱嗄声呀亲人的说话声呀。

  19. Alliteration 头韵法

  在文句中有两个以上连结在一起的词或词组,其开头的音节有同样的字母或音,以增强语言的节奏感。

  例如:

  How and why he had come to Princeton, NewJersey is a story ofstruggle, success, and sadness.

  20. Analogy 类比

  将两个本质上不同的事物就其共同点进行比较,是通过比喻手法的综合运用帮助说明道理或描述某种复杂情况。

  比如说,我们在讨论政府职能的时候,假如我们不了解政府职能,我们可以从我们了解的组织谈起,比如我们可以讨论班级、学校、公司或者一些大型小型组织,从一个具体的问题到另一个问题而避免谈一些不熟悉的问题。

  具体的陈述可以类似如下开展:

  Writing a book of poetry is like dropping arose petal down theGrand Canyon and waiting for the echo.

  将写书的动作和把玫瑰花瓣扔到大峡谷等回音类比。

  21. Symbolism 象征

  象征是通过一些具体形象,使人产生联想,从而表现与之相联系的某种抽象的概念、思想、感情,表现作品主题的艺术创作手法,属于文艺学范畴,它是一种写作手法。而借代,是一种修辞手法,是指用相关的事物来代替所要表达的事物,本体与借体之间没有相似点,只有相关性,因而不能加“像”字换成明喻。

  Harper Lee写的小说"To Kill aMockingbird"中就运用了symbolism,把Mockingbird(知更鸟)比喻成那些只会为别人做好事,但却恰恰因此受到惩罚的人们。因为知更鸟只会为人类不停的歌唱,从不做任何坏事,而自己却死在人们的枪口下。

  二、3种科学的说服方式、征服阅卷老师

  1. Ethos(appeal to ethics)即“信誉证明”。

  读者在阅读一篇文章的时候,往往会问自己:“作者是如何知道这些事的?”“我又为什么要相信这个写文章的人?”所以,想要成为一个有力的说服者,必须在作品中提供能够证明其真实性和可靠性的证据,让读者感觉到你是“可以被信赖的”。一次亲身的经历或者一个权威的身份都可以帮助作者“验明真身”。

  例:SAT OG Practice Essay 1

  More than a decade ago, [my wife] Rosalynn and I had the fortunate opportunity to camp and hike in these regions of the Arctic Refuge. During bright July days, we walked along ancient caribou trails and studied the brilliant mosaic of wildflowers, mosses, and lichens that hugged the tundra. There was a timeless quality about this great land. As the never-setting sun circled above the horizon, we watched muskox, those shaggy survivors of the Ice Age, lumber along braided rivers that meander toward the Beaufort Sea.

  这个段落节选自美国前总统Jimmy Carter为“Arctic National Wildlife Refuge”所著的前言文章。如何让读者更好地看到Arctic Refuge的美呢?作者讲述了一段故事,他用自己和妻子的亲身经历向读者描绘了一幅恢弘壮阔的野生风光,让读者更加坚信了这份永恒的美。

  2. Pathos(appeal to emotion)即“情感证明”。

  冷冰冰的数据和高高在上的权威或许不足以俘虏读者的心,真正让人们心房一颤的还得靠情感上的共鸣。目的就是把对方的感情带入进来,无论是爱慕还是憎恶,欢愉或是哀痛。这就好比一篇荡气回肠的战争史诗,往往能让我们愤慨于碌碌无为的政府,牵挂于水深火热的百姓,惶恐于弹片横飞的战场,欢畅于企盼已久的曙光。

  例:SAT OG Practice Essay 2

  Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to me that the war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the poor at home. It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and to die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population. We were taking the black young men who had been crippled by our society and sending them eight thousand miles away to guarantee liberties in Southeast Asia which they had not found in southwest Georgia and East Harlem. And so we have been repeatedly faced with the cruel irony of watching Negro and white boys on TV screens as they kill and die together for a nation that has been unable to seat them together in the same schools. And so we watch them in brutal solidarity burning the huts of a poor village, but we realize that they would hardly live on the same block in Chicago. I could not be silent in the face of such cruel manipulation of the poor.

  这个段落节选自美国黑人民权运动领袖Martin Luther King Jr. 的演讲“Beyond Vietnam – A Time to Break Silence”。为了唤起人们对政法参与越南战争的不满,马丁路德金在本段中特意以活生生的家庭成员为切入点,以种族不平等的敏感话题为讽刺,同时加以大量对战争残酷和悲痛性的描述。这些都足以激起读者强烈的认同感。

  3. Logos(appeal to logic)即“逻辑证明”。

  顾名思义,这种说服方式着重的是逻辑推理,长期接触出国考试的考生对这种方式可谓是再熟悉不过了:阅读文章看逻辑,篇章写作看逻辑,甚至词汇填空和听力理解都要借助逻辑思维。何谓有“逻辑”呢?简单来说,就是有因必有果,有理需有据,由此能及彼,由表可及里。

  例:SAT OG Practice Essay 3

  Early tech use has cognitive benefits as well. Although parenting experts have questioned the value of educational games—as Jim Taylor, author of Raising Generation Tech, puts it, “they’re a load of crap . . . meant to make money”—newstudies have shown they can add real value. In a recent study by SRI, a nonprofit research firm, kids who played games like Samorost (solving puzzles) did 12% better on logic tests than those who did not. And at MIT’s Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued students’ interest in history and was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports.

  这个段落节选自Eliana Dockterman的文章“The Digital Parent Trap”。作者试图告诉读者尽早接触科技对孩子们是件好事。所谓“有理必有据”,在表明态度之后,Eliana立即用SRI和MIT的调差研究来加以论证,从两组对比中让读者对科技的利处一目了然。

 

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